The bone marrow is the nucleus of bones. It is a sponge-like tissue found inside all bones. There are two types of bone marrow in the body: white marrow which is found in long bones like the femur, and red marrow which is found in short bones like astragalus.
The main role of the bone marrow is the production of blood components such as white and red blood cells, as well as platelets. However, if this part of the body no longer fulfills its function, different diseases can appear.
Some of these conditions may require a bone marrow transplantation in Turkey to be treated.
Bone marrow transplant
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- People who suffer from immunodeficiency problems.
- People who suffer from certain cancers.
- People who suffer from bone marrow failure.
- People with abnormal hemoglobin molecules.
- Rejection of the transplant.
- 2 months.
What is a bone marrow transplantation?
A bone marrow transplant involves replacing the patient's bone marrow cells, called stem cells, with cells from a healthy, compatible donor. These hematopoietic stem cells are the ones responsible for the production of red and white blood cells and platelets. The purpose of this transplantation is to give patients the chance to rebuild new blood.
The transplant can be done for people whose bone marrow has been destroyed by diseases and their treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This procedure can be performed in adults as well as in children, depending on the patient's disease and state of health.
Types of stem cell transplants
- Autologous transplant: The cells are taken from the patient himself.
- Allogeneic transplant: The cells come from a compatible, healthy donor.
- Reduced-intensity transplant: same intervention as for allogeneic transplant, except that the chemotherapy is weaker.
There is a fourth type that is rarer than the other three, called isograft or syngeneic graft. For this transplant, the cells come from an identical twin (same genetic background and tissue types).
When to have a bone marrow implantation?
Stem cell transplantation performed from the marrow of a donor or family member also called an allogeneic transplant, is the most widely used of the other types. It is indicated as a treatment for certain blood diseases, including:
It is also indicated for people who suffer from aplasia or hemoglobinopathy. The transplantation is of great importance, because the absence or failure of red blood cells leads to anemia, for white blood cells it causes various and varied infections, and for platelets it causes bleeding.
Stem cell implantation process in Istanbul
Before proceeding with this surgery, the patient will be hospitalized in Istanbul for 15 days and will have to undergo a treatment called conditioning treatment. The patient will therefore need to take a high dose of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The goal is to remove affected and diseased cells to make room for the new marrow.
Transplantation is done with an infusion, like a transfusion. The transplanted hematopoietic stem cells diffuse in the blood and will be lodged in the bone marrow.
After 30 to 50 days of the transplant, the patient can be discharged from the hospital, but he will need to be followed until the 100th day after implantation. The doctor must monitor the progress of the transplant and be sure that there is no rejection of the transplant.
Risks of rejection and complications of stem cell implantation
The most common complication doctors may face after a bone marrow transplant and graft versus host disease. This type of rejection is characterized by an attack on the body of the receptor by the immunocompetent cells of the donor. This side effect affects several parts of the patient's body, such as the skin and the digestive tract.
To decrease the risk of rejection, doctors prescribe immunosuppressants. The purpose of this medicine is to limit the immune response and to decrease the level of antibodies created.
Success rate and life expectancy after a bone marrow transplant
The success rate after one year of an allogeneic transplant is estimated at 70% for adult patients and 80% for children. When the cells are not from a family member, life expectancy drops to 50%.
Without a bone marrow transplant, the survival rate for someone with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is just a few weeks. With this treatment, between 65 and 70% of people with AML achieve complete remission. However, people over 60 have a lower response rate and usually only live 3 years after the transplant.
Bone Marrow Transplant in Turkey: Cost and Reviews
In addition to the implantation, the cost of a bone marrow transplant in Turkey includes the length of hospital stay before and after the operation. It also includes the treatments administered during this period, as well as examinations and assessments. Our clinics in Turkey and Istanbul offer you the best care and support during your stay, in addition to offering you the best prices.
A personalized quote and a free consultation for medical advice are available from the link below. You can also read our patient's reviews for more information.
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The bone marrow transplant cost in Turkey varies according to the procedure type. For autologous transplants, costs range from 16500 euros to 20500 euros. For allogeneic transplants, prices vary between 53000 euros and 66000 euros.
For a more detailed quote, please contact us directly via our platform.
Generally speaking, a sibling is considered the ideal and most compatible donor for a bone marrow transplant. As the related donor transplants can achieve a 100% success rate. This is due to the genetic compatibility of both parties, which is determined by human tissue markers called human leukocyte antigens (HLA). Nevertheless, unrelated donors with partial compatibility can be used in certain situations, although this may require high medical supervision to prevent rejection risk.
Once the cancer cells have been destroyed, bone marrow harvesting from the sternum or pelvic bone may take 1 to 2 hours. The stem cells are then transferred by intravenous infusion within a few hours. After transplantation, the recipient patient will be monitored to ensure that the transplant goes smoothly and to minimize any risk of complication.
To ensure that the transplanted cells have survived and multiplied within the bone marrow, several blood tests must be carried out. It will take two weeks to a month to ensure that the BMT has been successful.
The main techniques used to harvest bone marrow are :
- Biopsy: using a needle inserted into the bone.
- Aspiration: puncture of the iliac bone
- Apheresis: collection of stem cells from peripheral blood