What is Hodgkin’s disease?
Hodgkin’s disease is a form of cancer of the lymphatic system. There is an unusual increase of a certain kind of white blood cell (lymphocytes). It is represented by the appearance of particular abnormal cells (Sternberg cells). This is the difference between Hodgkin’s lymphoma and all other lymphomas that are called "non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas".
In the case of Hodgkin’s disease, the proliferation of abnormal cells leads to increased lymph node volume. Lymphocytes are no longer functioning properly. As a result, the body loses part of its defense system against viruses and bacteria and, as a result, infections occur more easily.
It is likely that the disease initially appears in one place, usually a lymph node, sometimes elsewhere in the lymphatic system: in the spleen, liver, or bone marrow.
What are the Symptoms of hodgkin's disease?
The most common symptom of Hodgkin lymphoma is swelling of the lymph nodes which causes a lump to form under the skin. This mass is usually not painful. It can be formed in one or more of the following areas:
- On the side of the neck.
- In the armpit.
- Around the groin.
Call your doctor in Turkey or Istanbul right away if you have any of these symptoms. They may be signs of other conditions and it is important to get an accurate diagnosis.
How is it diagnosed in Istanbul?
To diagnose Hodgkin's disease, your doctor will do a physical exam and ask you questions about your medical history. Your doctor will also order certain tests so that he can make an appropriate diagnosis. The following tests can be performed:
- Imaging tests like x-rays or CT scans.
- A lymph node biopsy: which involves removing a piece of tissue from the lymph node to check for abnormal cells.
- Blood tests, such as a complete blood count (FSC), to measure the levels of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
- Immunophenotyping to determine the type of lymphoma cells present.
- Lung function tests to determine if your lungs are working well.
- An echocardiogram to determine if your heart is working well.
- A bone marrow biopsy: which includes removing and examining the bone marrow inside your bones to see if the cancer has spread.
Best hospitals and doctors for treatment in Turkey and Istanbul
The selection of doctors and clinics in Turkey, Istanbul, Ankara, Antalya and Izmir is made on the basis of annual qualification reports. The main selection criterion for Turquie santé is the number of operations or procedures performed. It takes into account experience, reputation in the medical society, the availability of quality certificates and high specialization in a certain field.
Advances in the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma in recent decades have dramatically increased the survival rate. According to Turquie santé, the relative survival rates of all those diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease are as follows:
The five-year survival rate is approximately 86%.
The 10-year survival rate is around 80%.
Here are the five-year survival rates for the different stages:
- Phase 1 is around 90 percent.
- Phase 2 is around 90 percent.
- Phase 3 is around 80 percent.
- Phase 4 is around 65 percent.
These rates may vary depending on the stage of the disease and the age of the individual.
How is lymphoma treated?
Treatment for HD depends on the stage of the disease. The major treatment alternatives are chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams of radiation to ruin cancer cells. Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs that can kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs can be given by mouth or injected into a vein, depending on the drug.
Immunotherapy or stem cell transplant can also be used if you do not respond to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. A stem cell transplant involves injecting healthy cells called stem cells into your body to replace cancer cells in your bone marrow.