Eye enucleation is the surgical removal of the eyeball with reinsertion of the motor muscles and their fixation on a sphere covered with tissue.
This type of surgery is recommended in case of injury or when the eye is clumsy or painful.
- Severe unglaucoma
- Ophthalmic melanoma
- The hemorrhage
- The hematoma
- The infection
- Scar disunity
- Cornea transplant
- Eye implantation
Causes of enucleation of the eye
Eye enucleation is done to remove large eye tumors or follow an injury after severe trauma or also a blow if the eye cannot be saved, and in eyes that have lost the ability to see, causing pain. . In the case of tumors, the amount of radiation needed to clear them from the eye is too intense. Indeed, the eye is a very fragile organ, that cannot withstand the amount of radiation used. Thus, many patients treated with radiation therapy may lose their vision after a few months or even years, and eventually, they end up having an operation to remove their eyes.
This is because eye excision is usually performed under local anesthesia. This anesthesia around the eyes is similar to the anesthesia performed in dentistry. A strong anesthetic will be given into a vein so that the patient does not feel anything. Also, local anesthesia will be injected behind the eye, its effects usually last about 12 hours. After local anesthesia, the level of intravenous sedation will be reduced. However, it will be maintained to reduce the patient's anxiety during the surgery.
The surgeon measures the dimensions of the eyeball, the length of the optic nerve, and the horizontal dimensions of the cornea, so he draws the eyeball before opening it. A dissecting microscope will be worn to detect the main features and possible tiny lesions. Therefore, the eye opens with a sharp blade, holding the eyeball with the left hand.
The eye removal operation is performed as a back-to-front diffusion motion, and the surface of the incision begins on the side adjacent to the optic nerve and ends at the end of the cornea. The area of the incision depends on the detection of a lesion. Otherwise, the ball will be cut along a horizontal plane.
Types of tumors
Two types of tumors require eye removal:
- Eye melanoma
It is a rare type of cancer in which melanocyte cells in the eye are affected. When melanocytes become cancerous, the cancer is called melanoma. If the tumor reaches the iris and begins to grow, or if symptoms appear, the eye should be removed.
Retinoblastoma is a malignant tumor that affects the retina. It is a thin layer of tissue that lines the back of the eye. Where the retina captures light and forms images. If cancer occurs in one eye, treatment may be eye removal by removing large tumors when there is no hope that vision can be preserved. Once cancer is detected in both eyes, treatment will be to remove the eye with the larger tumor, and radiation therapy will be considered for the other eye.
Complications of eye removal surgery
Eye removal surgery is an operation that takes place under good conditions. Patients rarely present with major complications:
• An infection
• Constant swelling and pain
• Wound separation, or the need for additional surgery
Complications can also occur during eye transplantation in patients who have had their eyes removed. Among these risks have signals the risk of infection.
Over two to six weeks, patients wear a temporary ocular prosthesis (plastic eye). Once the swelling and darkness around the eye subside. The patient appears with natural vision and after putting on the prosthesis, he feels satisfied with the external appearance.
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