Dubbed the disease of the century, diabetes is a disease that affects hundreds of millions of people around the world. It is characterized by a higher than normal level of glucose in the blood (excess sugar). This pathology is generally due to genetic causes or is a consequence of malnutrition.
Besides being a chronic disease, diabetes can be the cause of many other serious illnesses. These diseases can affect organs such as the eyes, kidneys or the nervous system. Among the pathologies caused by diabetes and one of the most dangerous, because it can cause loss of sight, is diabetic retinopathy.
Diabetic retinopathy normally only requires treatment when it has progressed to the point that your vision is at risk.
Diabetic retinopathy and pathophysiology
Diabetic retinopathy is an eye disease usually caused by diabetes. It is characterized by lesions in the capillaries of the retina. If the disease worsens and develops without treatment, it can have serious consequences, including blindness and loss of sight.
The severity of the disease is related to certain causes that cause it to change from nonproliferative retinopathy to proliferative retinopathy. Among these causes we find:
- How long ago the diabetes was.
- Uncontrolled blood sugar.
- Blood pressure level.
Nonproliferative retinopathy, also known as simple retinopathy, is the first stage of the disease, but also the less serious, as it does not require immediate treatment. However, monitoring of blood sugar and blood pressure is essential. In addition, follow-up from your ophthalmologist is mandatory to determine when treatment will be necessary.
Proliferative retinopathy is the evolution of nonproliferative and unlike the latter, it must be managed as soon as possible. It can have serious repercussions such as loss of vision, vitreous hemorrhage or even retinal detachment. It is most often characterized by the spread of pre-retinal neovessels on the vitreous, which leads to intravitreal hemorrhages.
The development of pre-retinal neovascularization can also cause neovascular glaucoma. This happens when neovascularization occurs in the anterior part of the iris or the eye and causes the neovascular membrane to increase in the corner of the eye or the iris.
Symptoms of diabetic retinopathy
A fundus examination at least once a year is necessary to detect the first signs of diabetic retinopathy. This examination is advised because the symptoms are not visible in the early stages of the disease. Additionally, the symptoms of diabetic retinopathy differ depending on the severity and stage of the disease.
Symptoms of nonproliferative retinopathy
The primary visible symptoms are caused by macular edema. However, other symptoms of nonproliferative retinopathy exist, for example:
- Cottony nodules also called soft exudates.
- Hard exudates.
- Retinal bleeding.
Other signs may appear later, including:
- Macular edema.
- Venous dilation.
- Microvascular problems.
Symptoms of proliferative retinopathy
The most visible symptom of proliferative retinopathy is the neovascularization of the vessels which is visible on the retina of the patient. Other signs can be detected and are usually related to retinal detachment or intravitreal bleeding. These signs are:
- Blurry vision.
- Bright spots or black spots in the field of view.
- Loss of visual acuity.
Diabetic retinopathy treatment (laser, surgery) in Istanbul
Treatment for diabetic retinopathy in Istanbul depends on the progression and severity of the disease. Indeed, if the disease is at an early stage, treatment is not necessary and the patient should just monitor his blood sugar to slow the progression of the pathology. In addition, follow-up accompanied by an ophthalmologist is also recommended to know when the patient will need treatment.
If the patient is at an advanced stage of the disease, several types of treatment are possible, including refractive laser surgery. These treatments include several techniques and procedures, for example:
- Laser photocoagulation.
- Focal laser treatment.
- Panretinal photocoagulation.
- Eye injection of drugs.
Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment: Price & Reviews
The price of treatment for diabetic retinopathy depends on the severity and the case of the patient. Because it defines the procedure that the ophthalmologist will use to treat the disease.
With Turquie Santé, you will be taken care of in the best eye clinics in Turkey. In addition, our clinics offer you the best treatments in addition to the lowest prices. The our patients reviews are available to you for more information.
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