Dermatology is a medical specialty that deals with diseases of the skin and integuments (hair and nails). According to the definition it includes the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, mucous membranes and skin appendages as well as dermatological manifestations of systemic diseases. It is practiced by a dermatologist.
the field of activity of this specialty is broad.
How it works ?
Also referred to as the integument, it represents in man a surface of 2 m2, it has a thickness of 2 mm, thicker in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet and thinner in the eyelids.
How important is this organ
The skin is essential to life. It has essential and fundamental roles:
- A real barrier against external aggressions (shock, bacteria, viruses, radiation, pollution, heat, cold ...).
- Vitamin D synthesis site essential for osteogenesis
- Immune defense organ
- Communication organ with psychosocial function
- The skin is the organ of relationship with the external world and the reflection of various internal attacks both organic and psychic
What diseases affect the skin and its appendages
The list is very long. We can distinguish :
- Infectious diseases, namely bacterial infections (erysipelas), parasitic infections (candidiasis, etc.), viral infections (mollusc, etc.)
- Inflammatory and systemic diseases: psoriasis, lupus ....
- Neoplastic diseases: melanomas, carcinomas ...
You can consult the dermatologist when you notice something abnormal in the skin or skin appendages.
How is the consultation conducted?
Like any doctor, the dermatologist starts by asking the reason for consulting the patient. It is very important to specify the age of the patient, because some diseases affect young people (acne, psoriasis ...), personal history; some diseases have cutaneous manifestations (lupus, dermatopoymyositis ...), and family in search of a possible hereditary disease (example the xeroderma pigmentosum).
Then the patient must inform his doctor precisely the date of onset of symptoms and any associated signs (fever, other signs ....), Then the doctor examines the patient.
Which instruments does the dermatologist use?
The dermatologist sometimes uses a dermatoscope. This instrument improves 10 times better, and allows the doctor to visualize the characteristics of small lesions.
He uses very often other materials (scalpel for biopsies ...).
It is not surprising that a dermatologist requires additional tests to advance the diagnosis.
SUBSPECIALTIES IN DERMATOLOGIES:
First of all, dermatology is a medico-surgical specialty since the treatment is two-sided:
- A medical facet: the dermatologist prescribes a medical treatment based on tablets, ointment ...
- A surgical facet: leader in cosmetic surgery. Several dermatologists are trained to use botox, laser surgery filling materials, liposuction, blepharoplasty ...
Cosmetology is currently a field in full expansion: peeling, waxing, injection...