The human nervous system can be affected by different diseases. These diseases, such as brain cancer and multiple sclerosis can cause several motor, sensory, cognitive and even visual disturbances.
The multiple sclerosis treatment options are available and medical research progresses in our clinics and hospitals in Turkey. Thanks to that, people with MS (also known as encephalomyelitis disseminata) can maintain a good quality of life.
Several treatments for multiple sclerosis have been approved in the last twenty years. Research goes on to experiment new approaches to obtain more effective drugs with fewer side effects.
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What is Multiple Sclerosis?
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease that has an influence on the central nervous system. It is complex and unpredictable, but it is neither contagious nor fatal.
Benign multiple sclerosis affects about 20-25% of cases, it doesn't lead to a total nerve damage. This form of MS does not show a progressive course. This means that it does not generally worsen over time and patients do not have serious deficits or disabilities.
What Causes Multiple Sclerosis?
Multiple sclerosis is among the autoimmune diseases in which several elements may be involved in its onset. The search for causes and mechanisms is still ongoing. However, at the moment, studies indicate factors related to the environment, a genetic predisposition and other infectious agents.
The inflammatory process that is triggered by the immune system can damage both the myelin sheath and oligodendrocytes. This demyelination can cause the loss or injury of the myelin sheath, which are referred to as plaques. They can take place in a number of places such as the brain, spinal cord, cerebellum, or optic nerves.
Plaques can evolve from an initial inflammatory phase to a chronic one. Depending on the extent and location of the lesion in the central nervous system, very different symptoms may occur.
What are the Signs & Symptoms?
People with multiple sclerosis have different symptoms based on the different possible location of lesions in the central nervous system. The frequency of signs can generally increase with the severity and duration of the disease.
Common Signs of MS in Women
Among the common signs of MS in women, we can mention:
- Vision problems: the optic neuritis, diplopia, or nystagmus are particularly frequent at the beginning.
- Sensory disorders: decreased sensitivity or altered and painful sensations.
- Cognitive problems: attention or memory disorders, difficulty in maintaining concentration, problems in making calculations or planning complex activities.
- Spasticity: patients may feel muscle stiffness that makes movements difficult.
- Speech disorders: weakness and lack of coordination of the tongue. The oral and facial muscles involved in the production of sounds and words.
Less common Signs of MS in Women
Other signs can rarely be noticed in women, which are:
- Headache: pain that can involve any part of the head, including the scalp and the face.
- Hearing loss: very rare disorder that occurs due to injury of the central auditory pathways.
- Bowel problems: bladder dysfunction, constipation, loss of control of the bowels, and diarrhoea.
- Dysphagia: it is a difficulty in swallowing that is present only in the most severe forms of MS.
- Breathing problems: they are present in very rare and serious cases.
- Vascular disorders: they occur as a result of poor mobilization. They may be present in the form of venous oedema, lymphedema, and deep vein thrombosis.
The best doctors in Turkey, Istanbul, Bursa, and Izmir will help you manage and deal with the symptoms of this disease.
Multiple Sclerosis: the Diagnosis before the Treatment
Most of the symptoms of MS can be successfully addressed and treated through specific and non-pharmacological therapies. The treatment can also include rehabilitation that plays a fundamental role.
Before the multiple sclerosis treatment, the neurologists consider three elements in the diagnosis of demyelinating disease. The latter includes:
All relevant information gathered during the interview with the person concerning his or her:
- Clinical situation;
- Other family diseases.
Other indications that may serve as an overview for the doctor to rule out certain hypotheses or confirm them.
A clinical exam carried out by the neurologist with the aim of analysing different functions such as:
- Sensitive system;
- Sense of balance;
- Eye reaction to visual stimuli.
Specific instrumental and physical examination
To dismiss other pathologies, the doctor may employ other tests such as:
- Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI;
- An evoked potential test;
- Blood tests.
Rehabilitation and treatment of multiple sclerosis
Rehabilitation has an important place in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. This treatment aims to optimize the autonomy and functions of the patient according to the neurological level. It can be used at all stages of the disease to help the patient manage fatigue and rehabilitate him under exertion.
Rehabilitation is usually done in case of:
- If the person experiences one of these genes: writing disorders, clumsiness, lameness, falls ...
- Annoying fatigue.
- Disabling spasticity.
- For regular support.
How does rehabilitation work?
Rehabilitation can be done through three specialities, each targeting well-defined parts or functions of the body. These specialities are:
- Physiotherapy: Rehabilitation is done by alternating activity and passivity while taking breaks. This method is based on several exercises such as the use of anti-static cryotherapy, regular stretching that targets specific muscle groups or even stress-training techniques.
- Occupational therapy: It allows the evaluation of autonomy, grip, spinal prophylaxis. The specialist also advises technical aids. This method of rehabilitation is based on action on the deficit and then on disability when the disease is at an early stage.
- Speech therapy: This type of rehabilitation mainly targets memory. She also works on problems with attention, concentration, and swallowing.
Prices of the Diagnosis & Treatment of multiple sclerosis in Turkey & Istanbul
The life expectancy of people with MS is slightly lower than that of those who do not have this disease.
However, many multiple sclerosis treatment options are available at the most affordable prices. Added to that, the medical technologies that are provided by Turquie santé clinics and hospitals are improving. Thanks to that, the diagnosis is more efficient and the complications that can occur over time are manageable.
Focusing on your health and wellbeing helps reduce the risks of other medical complications. Added to that, the cost of the treatment for this neurodegenerative disease is affordable in our clinics and hospitals in Turkey.
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Immunomodulators, also known as immunosuppressants, are used to treat relapses by regulating the body's immune response.
Surgical interventions such as orthopedic surgery and neurosurgery can also be used in cases of MS.
Multiple sclerosis symptoms, such as muscular weakness, sensitivity disorders, and optic nerve damage, can occur suddenly, or gradually worsen. Relapses usually occur over very short periods.
Pregnancy has been shown to reduce relapses of multiple sclerosis, especially in the last trimester. However, if neurological signs appear, a corticosteroid-based treatment will probably be prescribed by the doctor during a short hospital stay.
Generally, women with MS can breastfeed their babies. However, it should be noted that disease-modifying therapy must be resumed after weaning.
Several healthcare professionals from different specialties are involved in the MS management process, including a neurologist, psychologist, physiotherapist, and nurse.
This multidisciplinary team can also call on medico-social professionals for optimal follow-up of people with multiple sclerosis.