What is multiple sclerosis?
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative illness that has an influence on the central nervous system. It is complex and unpredictable, but it is neither contagious nor fatal.
Thanks to treatments and research progress in Turkey and Istanbul, people with multiple sclerosis can maintain a good quality of life. The inflammatory process that is triggered by the immune system can damage both the myelin sheath and oligodendrocytes. This process that is called demyelination can cause the loss or injury of the myelin sheath, which are referred to as plaques. They can take place in a number of places such as the spinal cord, cerebellum, or optic nerves. Plaques can evolve from an initial inflammatory phase to a chronic one. Depending on the extent and location of the lesion in the central nervous system, very different symptoms may occur.
In fact, there is no definitive cure for this neurodegenerative disease but there are numerous therapies available that modify its course and slow its progression.
What are the symptoms?
People with multiple sclerosis have different symptoms based on the different possible location of lesions in the central nervous system. The frequency of signs can generally increase with the severity and duration of the disease. Most of the symptoms of MS can be successfully addressed and treated through specific and non-pharmacological therapies such as rehabilitation that plays a fundamental role.
- Visual disturbances: the optic neuritis, diplopia, or nystagmus are particularly frequent at the beginning.
- Sensory disorders: decreased sensitivity or altered and painful sensations.
- Cognitive problems: attention or memory disorders, difficulty in maintaining concentration, problems in making calculations or planning complex activities.
- Spasticity: patients may feel muscle stiffness that makes movements difficult.
- Speech disorders: weakness and lack of coordination of the tongue and the oral and facial muscles involved in the production of sounds and words.
Less common symptoms
- Headache: pain that can involve any part of the head, including the scalp and the face.
- Hearing loss: very rare disorder that occurs due to injury of the central auditory pathways.
- Dysphagia: it is a difficulty in swallowing that is present only in the most severe forms of MS.
- Breathing problems: they are present in very rare and serious cases.
- Vascular disorders: they occur as a result of poor mobilization and may present in the form of venous edema, lymphedema, and deep vein thrombosis.
- A thorough knowledge of the disease and regular contact with the best doctors in Turkey, Istanbul, Bursa, and Izmir are among the tools that are available to deal and manage the symptoms of the disease.
How is it diagnosed ?
The neurologists consider three elements when they examine multiple sclerosis:
Medical history: all relevant information gathered during the interview with the person concerning his or her clinical situation, symptoms, other family diseases, and other indications that may serve as a general overview to rule out certain hypotheses or confirm them.
Neurological examination: a visit carried out by the neurologist with the aim of analyzing different functions such as movement, language, coordination, sensitive system, sense of balance, and eye reaction to visual stimuli.
Specific instrumental and physical examinations: magnetic resonance imaging, an evoked potential test, and blood tests can be used to dismiss other pathologies.
Causes of multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis is among the multifactorial diseases in which several elements may be involved in its onset. The search for causes and mechanisms is still ongoing, but at the moment studies indicate factors related to the environment, a genetic predisposition and other infectious agents.
How is it treated in Turkey and Istanbul?
Several therapies for multiple sclerosis have been approved in the last twenty years. Research goes on to experiment new approaches in order to obtain more effective drugs with fewer side effects and improve the quality of life of people with multiple sclerosis.
The life expectancy of people with MS is slightly lower than that of those who do not have this disease. Thanks to the treatments available for MS and the improvement of the general conditions of care that are provided by Turquie santé, many of the complications that can occur over time are manageable. General attention to your health and wellbeing helps reduce the risks of other medical complications.
Benign multiple sclerosis affects about 20-25% of cases. This form of MS does not show a progressive course which means that it does not generally worsen over time and patients do not have serious deficits or disabilities.